hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism

With hypothyroidism, lifelong use of medication is often required. (3). Sign up for our Healthy Living Newsletter! The key similarity between hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism is the thyroid and its production of thyroxine. An enlarged thyroid gland may require an ultrasound to diagnose possible cysts. Surgery removes the part of the thyroid gland that is causing the underlying issues. “When your thyroid is not working properly, it can lead to a whole host of symptoms,” she says. “When you have an underactive thyroid, your immune system is triggered to fight your thyroid, causing inflammation, which causes your thyroid to produce fewer thyroid hormones.” says Dr. Rene. Fortunately, treatment options for both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism exist are usually well-tolerated. These two conditions — hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism — affect the thyroid in different ways and therefore have distinct symptoms. Some people with Graves’ disease have swelling in the front of their neck from an enlarged thyroid gland, called a goiter, as well as eyes that appear enlarged because of inflammation. They can order tests to determine whether your thyroid hormone levels are in the normal range, and if they are not, can provide treatments to ease your symptoms. The opposite is true of hypothyroidism. A fine needle biopsy is sometimes used in conjunction with an ultrasound. Again, this is not a cure. (1). If antithyroid medications work, then your thyroid hormone levels will normalize without any further issues. These don’t damage the thyroid whatsoever. But with the right treatment plan, they can become manageable. Sometimes beta-blockers are also used to minimize the effects of too much thyroid hormone on the body, such as heart palpitations. Thinking About Your Thyroid: Get to Know This Small but Mighty Gland. After your thyroid gland is removed, the source of your hyperthyroidism is gone and you will become hypothyroid. Hypothyroidism is treated by supplements of thyroid hormones and hyperthyroidism is treated by anti-thyroid drugs. This means you can’t eat any food after midnight. (3). “It is associated with muscle weakness and constant fatigue, so it isn’t something you want.” (3). A blood test will measure three types of hormones. Hypothyroidism is also often li… Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) is a condition in which your thyroid gland doesn't produce enough of certain crucial hormones.Hypothyroidism may not cause noticeable symptoms in the early stages. A healthy thyroid gland takes up only the amount of iodine it needs. Feeling Cold. The most common form of hyperthyroidism is a condition called Graves’ disease. “The symptoms are typically vague and often resemble those that occur in other disorders, like iron deficiency. Advertising Policy Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. If you have hyperthyroidism, your hormone production speeds up. Like hyperthyroid, hypothyroid can be caused by many of the chemicals that you may have been exposed to during your military service. Hypothyroidism is much more common, with about 1 in 20 people in the United States diagnosed with the disease after the age of 12. (4) Levothyroxine (brand name Synthroid) is standard in hypothyroid treatment. You may also develop nodules directly on the thyroid gland, but these usually aren’t cancerous and don’t necessarily cause any issues with thyroid function. The most common cause of hypothyroidism is an autoimmune disease called Hashimoto’s disease, a condition where the immune system makes antibodies that destroy thyroid cells and stop them from making the thyroid hormone. This is not necessarily the case with hyperthyroidism. If you have hypothyroidism, your thyroid hormone production is slowed down. A high TSH result, in this instance, means your pituitary gland is in overdrive, likely trying to compensate for an underactive thyroid gland. These doctors and experts can help treat the symptoms of thyroid eye disease (Graves’ ophthalmopathy). While you may need occasional dosage adjustments, most people don’t outgrow taking this medication. Medical history and physical exam. “But some people with hypothyroidism feel so tired they stop exercising, sleep more, and change their routine, which causes more weight gain.” (3), In contrast, with an overactive thyroid, all body functions tend to speed up. This can present itself at any age, but the risk increases as you get older, and it is most commonly triggered by genetics. Here are four ways to help alleviate the symptoms. Hypothyroidism occurs when the gland is underactive. During the exam your doctor may try to detect a slight tremor in your fingers when they're extended, overactive reflexes, eye changes and warm, moist skin. Hyperthyroidism is basically the opposite of hypothyroidism. Levothyroxine sodium tablets (aka Synthroid) can be taken once a day as a replacement hormone to help regulate thyroid levels. COVID-19 Vaccine: For up-to-date information on eligibility and availability, How cessation classes help smokers beat their nicotine addiction. Both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism can cause fatigue, hair loss/thinning, muscle or joint pain, mental anguish (e.g., anxiety and depression, mood swings, or irritability), and many other symptoms that are common to other diseases. The thyroid is a small, butterfly shaped gland in the neck that is part of the endocrine system and helps regulate body functions by releasing a steady amount of thyroid hormones into the bloodstream. This approach is used when medications have failed. Heat is a byproduct of burning calories. As a result of an overactive thyroid you may experience: “It’s important to note that weight loss associated with overactive thyroid is not happy weight loss,” Skugor explains. (4), For people who want an alternative to radioiodine treatment or antithyroid medications, surgery is an option for hyperthyroidism. How do patients taking methimazole for hyperthyroidism tell the difference between a COVID-19 infection or side effects of methimazole? (4,6). The two main types of thyroid disease are hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. The cause is sometimes abnormal thyroid hormone levels. Track the Vax: What Needs to Be Done to Get COVID-19 Vaccines Into Arms Faster? In addition, Dr. Rene suggests women of childbearing age notify their gynecologist/obstetrician of either of these conditions because they can affect the baby during pregnancy. Left untreated, prolonged periods of high or low thyroid function can cause significant health problems. Hyperthyroidism is diagnosed using: 1. For example, consider how hot you get when … (2). Thyroid levels may not normalize for about a year after delivery. By subscribing you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Need to make an appointment with a Piedmont physician? Hyperthyroid treatment, on the other hand, may be temporary. Hypothyro… “The major difference between hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism is the thyroid’s hormone output,” says Minisha A. Sood, MD, an endocrinologist at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City. Early intervention makes treatment more successful. Common causes of hyperthyroidism include: Graves' disease, a common autoimmune condition that stimulates the thyroid hormones T4 and T3. Conditions that can cause hypothyroidism include: Thyroiditis: This condition is an inflammation (swelling) of the thyroid … Treatment for hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism differs. “Most people respond well once hyperthyroidism is diagnosed and treated, but it is important to seek immediate medical care if you feel any of the hyperthyroid symptoms. Hypothyroidism is also a risk factor for women after menopause, U.S. National Library of Medicine’s MedlinePlus, 7 Signs and Symptoms of Thyroid Eye Disease (Graves’ Ophthalmopathy), What to Know About Thyroid Eye Disease (Graves’ Ophthalmopathy), The Healthcare Professionals That Should Be on Your Thyroid Eye Disease Care Team, 7 Ways to Ease the Symptoms of Thyroid Eye Disease, Immunotherapy Drugs Used to Treat Cancer Cause More Thyroid Problems Than First Thought, Understanding Your Hypothyroidism Test Results, Swelling in the front of the neck (goiter), Change in bowel habits, where bowels are looser, High blood pressure (seen in hyperthyroidism). (The pituitary gland can kick into overdrive because of other factors, though, independent of the thyroid gland). Full surgical removal is called a thyroidectomy. A partial thyroidectomy means only one side of the thyroid gland is removed. “If left untreated, hyperthyroidism can lead to an irregular heart rhythm and excessive bone loss,” says Dr. Rene. Inflammation in the eye tissues can trigger problems such as vision loss and proptosis (eye bulging). (4,5). This involves taking a small sample out of the cyst to screen it for cancer. 5. According to Papaleontiou, treatment for an underactive thyroid involves … Similarities between Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism. With hypothyroidism, “your whole metabolism slows down — the heart rate is slower than normal, the intestinal tract becomes sluggish, and there is less heat production,” says Mario Skugor, MD, an endocrinologist at the Cleveland Clinic who specializes in thyroid disorders. (5), Subsequent diagnostic tests depend on what your doctor finds in your initial bloodwork as well as during a physical check of your thyroid. Everyday Health is among the federally registered trademarks of Everyday Health, Inc. and may not be used by third parties without explicit permission. A biopsy and ultrasound may be needed to rule out thyroid cancer, though this type of disease is rare. U.S. Drug Overdose Deaths Hit Record During COVID-19 Pandemic, Tippi Coronavirus: Tips for Living With COVID-19. Over time, untreated hypothyroidism can cause a number of health problems, such as obesity, joint pain, infertility and heart disease.Accurate thyroid function tests are available to diagnose hypothyroidism. They signal the thyroid to slow down T4 and T3 hormone production. This is especially true if you have an irregular heart rhythm, which can lead to a life-threatening condition such as stroke.”. (1), Women are more likely to get thyroid disease, and both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism occur more often in women over 60. … A low result means you’re getting an abnormal amount of thyroid hormones in the blood and may indicate hyperthyroidism. Doctors must use other symptoms to evaluate the risk or presence of either disorder and cannot diagnose either without a blood test. Doctors use anti-thyroid medications and radioactive iodine to slow the production of thyroid hormones. These symptoms are frustrating. All videos and content are the exclusive property of Piedmont Healthcare and may not be used by any third parties for any other purposes. (1) This can be a hit-and-miss process at first until your doctor figures out the right amounts of medicine you need for your thyroid to stabilize. Hyperthyroidism occurs when the thyroid makes too much T4, T3, or both. Learn more about thyroid and endocrine health. Sabrina Rene, M.D., an endocrinologist at Piedmont, says your thyroid plays a role in most bodily functions and regulates metabolism and body temperature. 4. On the flip side, someone with hyperthyroidism has a thyroid that makes too much thyroid hormone. Rapid changes in thyroid hormone levels, in particular, can unsettle your emotions. The first is called the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is released by the pituitary gland in the brain. It affects the function of every organ in your body and if it is not working properly, it can send your body out of sync. If you experience any of the above symptoms of thyroid disorders — either underactive thyroid or overactive thyroid — see your healthcare professional. About 1 in 8 women are estimated to have thyroid disease at some point during their lifetimes. Many patients with Graves’ disease and other types of hyperthyroidism … Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) occurs when your thyroid gland produces too much of the hormone thyroxine. Use these tips to help alleviate the symptoms of thyroid eye disease naturally. Essentially, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are two different disorders that are triggered when there is a change in thyroid hormone output. Thyroiditis is inflammation of your thyroid that causes stored thyroid hormone to leak out of your thyroid gland. A: Hypothyroidism is underactivity and hyperthyroidism is overactivity of your thyroid gland. Antithyroid medications work by stopping the thyroid gland from making too many hormones. The hyperthyroidism may last for up to 3 months, after which your thyroid may become underactive, a condition called hypothyroidism. (2), In simple terms, with hypothyroidism, or underactive thyroid, the thyroid gland doesn’t make enough thyroid hormone for the body’s needs. It occurs when the thyroid is overactive, producing too much thyroid hormone. Besides that, hypothyroidism causes symptoms that slow your metabolism down like weight gain and slowed heartbeat. Hyperthyroidism involves higher levels of thyroid … Hypothyroidism is more common. In general, your doctor may test for an underactive thyroid if you are feeling increasingly tired, have dry skin, constipation and weight gain, or have had previous thyroid problems or a goiter. These include difference in risk factors, diagnosis, and overall outlook. The most common signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism manifest in ways that suggest natural processes of the body are slowed or shutting d… For example, Agent Orange and other herbicides, fire suppression foam, and rocket and missile fuel have been linked to hypothyroidism… (1), Sometimes pregnancy can cause thyroid levels to fluctuate. Hyperthyroidism is a little easier to diagnose, but is less common, with an incidence rate of 1 in 100. Hyperthyroidism is when your thyroid-- the butterfly-shaped gland at the bottom of your neck, just above your collarbone -- makes too much of a hormone called thyroxine.. Your doctor may also check Free-T4 levels, which is the measurement of T4 before it’s stored in various tissues throughout the body. As a result of an underactive thyroid you may experience: “The weight gain that often accompanies hypothyroidism is a funny thing,” Dr. Skugor notes. © 1996-2021 Everyday Health, Inc. (4), More severe cases of hyperthyroidism may require radioiodine treatments. Low levels of any of these hormones indicate hypothyroidism, while high levels point to hyperthyroidism. Symptoms may include unintentional weight … The overall outlook and prognosis varies between hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Treatment with syntheti… An overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism) produces too much hormone. (4), Another method used to diagnose hyperthyroidism is called a radioactive iodine uptake test. 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